The Periodic Table of the Elements is commonly known to most people, especially those who know chemistry.
Theodore Gray & Nick Mann have compiled photographs of the elements in their pure state and some of their compounds in one of the most beautiful books I have ever seen on this subject. He first explains how the Periodic Table came to be and then explains each of the categories of elements represented within the table. Then element by element, he goes through the whole table.
A two-page spread (four pages each for gold, iron, aluminum, uranium, lead, and copper) is dedicated to each element. The first page is a full-color, full-page photo of the element in its pure state (when possible), the second offers photos of the way you may see the element being used in everyday life. This resource is smart as well as beautiful, and includes information about the element such as the atomic weight, density, atomic radius, crystal structure, atomic emission spectrum, chemical symbol, and an explanation of how it is used and special features of the element.
Elements are the foundation for the tangible items that we see daily; this book connects the science visually. Theodore Gray even offers an interactive Periodic Table at periodictable.com it includes some of this same beautiful photography of items found in his personal collection of elements.